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Recognising an unreliable basis for a claim

Treatments can harm.*†

Anecdotes are unreliable evidence.*†

Association is not the same as causation.†

Common practice is not always evidence-based.*†

Newer is not necessarily better.*

Expert opinion is not always right.*†

Beware of conflicting interests.*

More is not necessarily better.

Earlier is not necessarily better.

Hope may lead to unrealistic expectations.

Explanations about how treatments work can be wrong.

Dramatic treatment effects are rare.

Understanding whether comparisons are fair and reliable

Comparisons are needed to identify treatment effects.*†

Comparison groups should be similar.*†

Peoples’ outcomes should be analysed in their original groups.

Comparison groups should be treated equally.

People should not know which treatment they get.*

Peoples’ outcomes should be assessed similarly.

All should be followed up.

Consider all the relevant fair comparisons.*†

Reviews of fair comparisons should be systematic.

Peerreview and publication does not guarantee reliable information.

All fair comparisons and outcomes should be reported.

Subgroup analyses may be misleading.

Relative measures of effects can be misleading.

Average measures of effects can be misleading.

Fair comparisons with few people or outcome events can be misleading.*

Confidence intervals should be reported.

Donot confuse ‘statistical significance’ with ‘importance’.

Donot confuse ‘no evidence of a difference’ with ‘evidence of no difference’.

Making informed choices

Do the outcomes measured matter to you?

Are you very different from the people studied?

Are the treatments practical in your setting?

Do treatment comparisons reflect your circumstances?

How certain is the evidence?

Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?*†

*Concepts included in the IHC primary school resources (Nsangi et al , 2017).

†Concepts included in the IHC podcast (Semakula et al , 2017).

IHC,Informed Health Choices.

The concepts inthe Women daily life walking athletic mesh sneakers casual running shoes New Outlet Locations Cheap Price Brand New Unisex Online 2018 Unisex Online 5rKj3e4H
were developed as the first step in the Informed Health Choices (IHC) project as a conceptual framework to guide the development and evaluation of learning resources for primary school children and their parents in Uganda. Mens Fashion Sneakers Breathable Running Shoes Mesh Lightweight Gym With Credit Card Cheap Price Extremely Sale Online Brand New Unisex Cheap Online Cheap Purchase kDH5a6w6
We believe this to be the first framework with this objective. This paper describes the current status of the IHC Key Concepts List 7 and some of its uses.

What do we mean by ‘concepts’?

We use the term ‘concepts’ (‘ideas or objects of thought’) defined as ‘criteria’; that is, ‘standards for judgement; or rules or principles for evaluating or testing something’. In addition to being ideas or objects of thought, in the practical sense, they are issues worthy of attention or consideration in assessing and making choices based on claims.

The IHC Key Concepts List was initially developed to serve as a syllabus for identifying the resources needed to help people understand and apply the concepts. It is a framework, or starting point, for teachers and others to identify and develop resources (such as longer explanations, examples, games and interactive applications) to help people understand and apply the concepts. The IHC Key Concepts List currently includes 36 concepts ( box ), divided into three groups:

The original List included 32 concepts divided into six groups. 7 The List is reviewed and amended annually, and an up-to-date List and explanations for each concept can be found on the Testing Treatments interactive and Informed Health Choices websites.

The IHC Key Concepts List is based on a combination of evidence and logic. For example, for the concept ‘association is not the same as causation’; there is plenty of evidence that a ‘treatment’ can be associated with an outcome without causing the outcome; and there are logical explanations for this, such as confounding. 8 For the concept ‘comparison groups should be similar’, there is plenty of evidence that treatment comparisons between dissimilar comparison groups can be misleading; and there are logical explanations of how dissimilar comparison groups lead to biased estimates of treatment effects. Manufacture Summer men sport running shoes women ladies wholesale tennis walk shoes Best Seller Cheap Price 5d1q2NADua

The concepts are intended to apply to decisions about any type of treatment (defined as any action to improve or maintain the health of individuals or communities). We also believe the concepts to be relevant to claims and choices outside healthcare—including education, social welfare, crime and justice, international development interventions, environmental measures and veterinary treatments.

Recognising an unreliable basis for a claim.

Therefore, for most practical purposes decision-makers are unlikely to need to rank pairs defined on more than two criteria, thereby reducing the burden on decision-makers. For example, approximately 95 explicit pairwise rankings are required for the value model referred to above with eight criteria and four categories each (and 2,047,516,416 undominated pairs to be ranked); 25 pairwise rankings for a model with five criteria and three categories each; and so on. 2018 Chinese supplier casual men shoes land rover shoes Low Shipping Cheap Price Free Shipping Browse WSleERidvK
The real-world applications of PAPRIKA referred to earlier suggest that decision-makers are able to rank comfortably more than 50 and up to at least 100 pairs, and relatively quickly, and that this is sufficient for most applications.

The PAPRIKA method’s closest theoretical antecedent is Pairwise Trade-off Analysis, Real Cheap Online OEM cheap price designer shoes women famous brands With Mastercard For Sale nxUy09WM
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Like the PAPRIKA method, Pairwise Trade-off Analysis is based on the idea that undominated pairs that are explicitly ranked by the decision-maker can be used to implicitly rank other undominated pairs. Pairwise Trade-off Analysis was abandoned in the late 1970s, however, because it lacked a method for systematically identifying implicitly ranked pairs.

The ZAPROS method (from Russian for ‘Closed Procedure Near References Situations’) was also proposed; Where To Buy Low Price RUSHIMAN Summer slippers Genuine Leather Open Toe Wedges Websites DJj1IiSLMF
however, with respect to pairwise ranking all undominated pairs defined on two criteria “it is not efficient to try to obtain full information”. 100% Guaranteed new stylish custom design cheap running shoes Amazing Buy Cheap Outlet Store Buy Cheap Big Sale TfSzM
As explained in the present article, the PAPRIKA method overcomes this efficiency problem.

The PAPRIKA method can be easily demonstrated via the simple example of determining the point values (weights) on the criteria for a value model with just three criteria – denoted by ‘a’, ‘b’ and ‘c’ – and two categories within each criterion – ‘1’ and ‘2’, where 2 is the higher ranked category. [1]

This value model’s six point values (two for each criterion) can be represented by the variables a1, a2, b1, b2, c1, c2 (a2 > a1, b2 > b1, c2 > c1), and the eight possible alternatives (2 3 = 8) as ordered triples of the categories on the criteria (abc): 222, 221, 212, 122, 211, 121, 112, 111. These eight alternatives and their total score equations – derived by simply adding up the variables corresponding to the point values (which are as yet unknown: to be determined by the method being demonstrated here) – are listed in Table 2.

Undominated pairs are represented as ‘221 vs (versus) 212’ or, in terms of the total score equations, as ‘a2 + b2 + c1 vs a2 + b1 + c2’, etc. [Recall, as explained earlier, an ‘undominated pair’ is a pair of alternatives where one is characterized by a higher ranked category for at least one criterion and a lower ranked category for at least one other criterion than the other alternative, and hence a judgement is required for the alternatives to be pairwise ranked. Conversely, the alternatives in a ‘dominated pair’ (e.g. 121 vs 111 – corresponding to a1 + b2 + c1 vs a1 + b1 + c1) are inherently pairwise ranked due to one having a higher category for at least one criterion and none lower for the other criteria (and no matter what the point values are, given a2 > a1, b2 > b1 and c2 > c1, the pairwise ranking will always be the same).]

The Observation module allows you to listen to events in the repository and trigger a reaction. Useobservation to automate tasks such as publishing newly added assets or sending an email notification when a comment is added. Custom event listeners can react to almost any event. The Observation module is based on the JCR Soft Bottom Comfortable Cheap Flat Men Sport Running Shoes In Stock Sneakernews Cheap Online Choice 100% Original Cheap Price From China Free Shipping Fashion Style ItDrn0NK

Maven is the easiest way to install the module. Add the following to your Outlet Websites Outlet High Quality Jamron Women Hot Sale Canvas Rocking Shoes Comfort Walking Shoes Clearance Footlocker Finishline Cheap Price Store Free Shipping 100% Guaranteed djb5dizy9C

Pre-built jars are also available for download. See Installing a module for help.

An event listener registers an interest in a particular type of event. The job of the listener is to detect the event and possibly react to it.

Example: You want to send an email notification when a new page is added. Configure an event listener that listens to the NODE_ADDED event. This event occurs when a new node is added. Limit the listener to the mgnl:page YOYLAP Glitter Braided Design Flat Sandals Women Summer Outlet Best Store To Get Cheap Sale 2018 New Cheap How Much Outlet Reliable Cheap Sale iOZT242wt
so you only get notified about pages, not other types of nodes. Define the mail command as the desired reaction.

Magnolia provides two types of event listeners: listeners that react to the event on their own and listeners that delegate the reaction to a command. Both listeners are configured the same way, but command event listeners require additional properties that the command class supports.

The module includes a sample, self-contained listener, PageListener , that reacts to an event on its own.The reaction is hard-coded in the class and outputs the following message to the console when a page is added.

Example : Basic PageListener configuration in /modules/observation/config/listenerConfigurations .



A single listener can monitor a single or all types. To monitor two types to the exclusion of other types, two listener configurations are required. Folders and contacts, for example, require one listener to monitor folders () and another to monitor files (). You can verify the by exporting the node to be monitored to XML and searching for the value of in the file.

A command event listener delegates the reaction to a Chainingyee style round toe summer sandals high heel Outlet Real XJfhfDeDYb
. You can use an existing command or write your own .

The module installs two example command listener configurations in /modules/observation/config/listenercConfigurations/ :

Command-specific listener properties:

Listeners may rely on the module to send emails. oem professional boxing shoes Discount Release Dates VyrdY
setting to ensure they work.

The module provides the following listener classes:

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